Love Spells

Following on from Tuesday’s love potions post, which rhymes and chants were used for casting romance spells?  And does any method guarantee success?  A few clues exits in the rare books of magic and the ‘voluntary’ confessions extracted during various witch trials.

In De Occulta Philosophia the famous magician Agrippa (1486-1535) suggests that potions which include bizarre animal ingredients —  cat brain, wolf penis, and frog bones — are the most effective.   But the everyday spells cast by love-struck maidens were generally more innocuous.

Love Spell 2

From Mother Bunch’s Closet Newly Broke Open (by T.R.), Joyce Froome quotes the words used for piercing an apple with three pins and placing it under the pillow:

If thou be he that must have me

To be thy wedded bride,

Make no delay but come away

This night to my bedside. 

In the years of religious confusion following the Reformation, British Wise Women seem to have sprinkled their spell with a mix of paganism and papist terminology, perhaps believing that their banned Catholic rites still contained magic powers.  Old Chattox (one of the Lancashire Witches) confessed in her trial documents to using charms such as this one ( although this wasn’t actually a love potion):

Three Biters hast thou bitten,

The Hart, ill Eye, ill Tonge:

Three bitter shall be thy Boote,

Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost

 a Gods name.

Five Pater-nosters, five Avies,

and a Creede,

In worship of five wounds

of our Lord.

Yet young girls of that era who wished to dream of their future husbands would say a Pater Noster (Lord’s Prayer) for each pin stuck in their sleeves before going to bed on St. Agnes’ Night, showing that religion and magic were firmly entwined in popular medieval culture.

Or on St. Thomas’ Eve, unwed girls might prick an onion with nine pins while chanting:

Good St. Thomas, do me right,

Send me my true love this night,

In his clothes and his array

Which he weareth every day. 

Love Spell 1

By the early Twentieth Century love spells had become less toxic and more in harmony with the natural world.  Froome explains how The Book of Charms and Ceremonies recommends placing willow catkins in the mouth before saying:

I eat thy luck

I drink thy luck

Give me that luck of thine

Then thou shalt be mine.

Today, however, love potions usually resemble herbal teas.  Here is one example from a “book on Druidic practices”:

1 pinch of rosemary

2 teaspoons of black tea

3 pinches of thyme

3 pinches of nutmeg

3 fresh mint leaves

6 fresh rose petals

6 lemon leaves

3 cups of pure spring water

Sugar

Honey

This potion should be made on a Friday during the waxing moon, in an earthenware or copper tea kettle.  Before drinking, the lover should recite:

By light of moon waxing I brew this tea
To make [lover’s name] desire me.

 Then they should drink some of the tea and say:
Goddess of love, hear now my plea
Let [lover’s name] desire me!
So mote it be
So mote it be. 
(links2love.com)

On the following Friday the lover should make more tea and share it with the person they desire who will then fall in love with them!

This brief summary shows a changing trend from the olden days, when young women wished to see who they would wed in harmless dreams, to cunning folk mixing dubious love potions.  During times of religious unrest, ancient prayers and traditional sacred rites were used but these were gradually replaced with herbs, roots, and mystical items from the natural world.

Rohypnol 2 mg box

Herbal teas seem harmless enough, but the suggestion to “share it with the person you desire” has become an increasingly sinister idea in this modern pharmaceutical era.  For many years men have used alcohol as a makeshift “love potion” to seduce unworldly women, but since date-rape drugs like rohypnol, ketamine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are available to those who know where to look, it is increasingly easy to ensure that the object of their desire cannot say no.

Love potions were always designed to make an unknowing or unwilling person comply with someone else’s wishes.  Unfortunately, date-rape drugs have now made it much easier for the predator to succeed!

 Sources:

Dyer, D.G. “Agrippa” in Man, Myth, and Magic (London: BBC, 1970)

Froome, Joyce. Wicked Enchantments: A History of the Pendle Witches and Their Magic (Lancaster: Carnegie, 2010)

“Love Potion Tea” available at http://www.links2love.com/love_potion.htm  (accessed 2/16/2015)

Potts, Thomas. The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster (London, 1613)

Old Demdike: Seven

Go Love-Nuts On Halloween!

“Can’t choose between two lovers? Here’s a spell to help – but it must be cast on All Hallows:
Light a fire and take three walnuts. Name one for yourself and one for each suitor.

Shell Walnut Walnuts Nuts

Place the three nuts on the fire with yours in the middle of the other two.
If either nut cracks – or jumps away – that union is not meant to be.
The two nuts that blaze closest together will make the best marriage!”

Love Potions

Night hearts

The topic for this Valentine’s week is love potions!  What are they made from?  Who uses them?  Do they work?

In Wicked Enchantments, Joyce Froome describes an array of magical charms used throughout the ages and recorded in the Museum of Witchcraft in Cornwall, England.  These include: sticking a certain number of pins into an apple or onion while chanting a rhyme; specific astrological symbols engraved on a box as a love talisman; carrying henbane root to make you appear more attractive; piercing knotted cords with pins; throwing salt on the fire while reciting a chant on three consecutive Fridays;  melting a wax heart over a hot tile while casting a charm that will bind the lover to your will;  and pushing pins in the sleeve with a prayer for each one so you will dream of your future spouse.  And quoting from The Book of Secrets of Albertus Magnus, Froome explains that a typical magical drink contained items such as periwinkle, houseleek,  and earthworms!

Candle hearts

Over the centuries love potions have appealed to young women in search of a husband; those who’ve lost their sweethearts and wish to lure them back; lovers in search of willing bed partners; and insecure people needing outside support, especially when they’ve already been rebuffed.  Cunning folk were only to happy to oblige and had a fifty-fifty chance of providing satisfaction, though of course they were conjuring up sexual allure and attraction, rather than genuine love.

There is some scientific research suggesting that modern-day “love potions” may actually affect human mood  – for example, those based on odors containing jasmine, rose, and vanilla.  Smells can trigger pheromones and create longing, attraction, or remind the person of happy erotic memories from their past.  Several products on the market contain chemical pheromones which supposedly make the wearer sexually irresistible.  Likewise, in the time before Viagra, certain herbs were used to increase the blood flow and stimulate arousal.  But did they really work?  What do you think?

Source:

Froome, Joyce. Wicked Enchantments: A History of the Pendle Witches and Their Magic (Lancaster: Carnegie, 2010)

The Scrying Game

Since the days of the Ancient Persians, wizards, witches, and Romany gypsies and have sought for ways to look beyond the familiar world around them.  Cunning folk have stared into fire, water, polished stone, magic mirrors, and crystal balls, seeking divination of hidden knowledge – visions of future events – or clairvoyant arts to find lost objects and detect criminals.

Scrying is a common Celtic practice too.  It comes from the Old English word descry and means to make out dimly or to reveal the past, present, or future.  Used to detect chaos, evil, good, and magic, scrying often brings a message.  The seer goes into a trance and uncovers a series of hidden images, rather like a movie playing inside their skull.  But the visions are symbolic and need interpreting, which is a skill that is only learned and honed over time.

Look into Kit’s crystal ball below.  I see you – if you see me too then perhaps you’ve also got the gift!

Crystal ball

Witches Galore: The Real Deal

One of the most popular gift shops in the world is Witches Galore, an enchanting magic store nestled close to Pendle Hill at Newchurch-in-Pendle.

 

Witch Shop Michael Ely Photograph by Michael Ely

 

Witches Galore

14 Newchurch Village, Newchurch-in-Pendle, Burnley, BB12 9JR, United Kingdom 

(Telephone: 01144-1282-613111)

Tourists paying a visit are greeted by a coven of life-size hags, who instantly weave their charms to lure the customers within!  Open seven days a week from 11am – 5 pm, Witches Galore offers an eclectic mix of information, games, and souvenirs.  There are mugs, ceramic wall plaques, tea-towels, fridge magnets, and jewelry related to the Pendle Witches, alongside a variety of books based specifically on Lancashire history, and a miscellaneous collection of magic items such as tarot packs, chalices, scrying bowls, skulls, and so forth.

But unique to this store is their expansive collection of beautifully-crafted witch models.  This one I ordered on-line (see below) is named after one of the Pendle Witches: Jennet Device.

Jennet

And this doll was bought several years ago when I was in the area:

Ali

The individual details are amazing.  I have never seen cloth-and porcelain figures of this quality anywhere else.

For a closer look inside Witches Galore check out this cute AffieFilms video with Cassie and Pippa (The Monkey Dogs).  There is also some great location footage at the start and end of their short YouTube adventure.  Enjoy!

Old Demdike: Six

From my voluntarie Confession and Examination (April 2, 1612)

” . . . the speediest way to take a mans life away by Witchcraft, is to make a Picture of Clay, like unto the shape of the person whom they meane to kill,& dry it thorowly: and when they would have them to be ill in any one place more then the other; then take a Thorne or Pinne, and pricke it in that part of the Picture you would so have to be ill: and when you would have any part of the Body to consume away, then take that part of the Picture, and burne it. And when you would have the whole body to consume away, then take the remnant of the sayd Picture, and burne it: and so thereupon by that meanes, the body shall die.”

 

Source: Potts, Thomas. The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster, 1613.

Old Demdike: Five

A Charme to Cure the Bewitched.

(Francisco de Goya y Lucientes)

“Upon Good-Friday, I will fast while I may
Untill I heare them knell
Our Lords owne Bell,
Lord in his messe
With his twelve Apostles good,
What hath he in his hand
Ligh in leath wand:
What hath he in his other hand?
Heavens doore key,
Open, open Heaven doore keyes,
Steck, steck hell doore.
Let Crizum child
Goe to it Mother mild,
What is yonder that casts a light so farrandly,
Mine owne deare Sonne that’s naild to the Tree.
He is naild sore by the heart and hand,
And holy barne Panne,
Well is that man
That Fryday spell can,
His childe to learne;
A Crosse of Blew, and another of Red,
As good Lord was to the Roode.
Gabriel laid him downe to sleepe
Upon the ground of holy weepe:
Good Lord came walking by,
Slep’st thou, wak’st thou Gabriel,
No Lord I am sted with sticke abd stake,
That I can neither sleepe nor wake:
Rise up Gabriel and goe with me,
The stick nor the stake shall never deere thee.
Sweete Jesus our Lord, Amen.”

Taken from Jennet Device’s testimony against her bother, James (August, 1612)