Olde English Yorkshire Pudding (Lancashire Style!)

 

 

 

Yorkshire_Pudding[1]

Here’s a Lancashire version of Yorkshire Pudding.  It was traditionally cooked in the fat drippings from a roast of beef and makes a delicious addition to Sunday Lunch.

Ingredients:

4oz plain flour

Pinch of salt

2 eggs

1/2 pint cold water

12 teaspoons of meat drippings or cooking oil or 3oz animal fat (lard)

 

Method:

1. Heat the oven to hot – 475 / Gas 9 / 240.

2. Place one teaspoon of the meat dripping (or oil or 1/4oz lard) inside the individual holes of a 12-cup muffin tray and set aside.

3. Sift the flour and salt in a large bowl.  Make a well in the center.  Add the eggs.  Stir.

4. Begin adding the water a little at a time, mixing with a fork to smooth out any lumps until a smooth watery batter forms.

5. Whisk with a fork for 2-5 minutes until the mixture forms large bubbles.  Place in the refrigerator.

6.  Heat the oil or fat in the muffin tray in the hot oven for 3-5 minutes until it is hot and steaming.  Carefully remove from the oven.

7. Whisk the batter again for 3 minutes. Spoon an even amount into each of the twelve holes.  Immediately return to the heat.

8. Cook for 20-25 minutes until risen and golden brown.  Serve immediately.

 

Hints for the perfect pudding!

* Puddings cooked in lard or meat dripping are the tastiest.

* Use only plain flour.

* Mixture made in advance, whisked several times, and stored in the refrigerator produces the best batter.

* Whisk with a fork – not a hand or electric mixer.

* The more air bubbles you whisk in, the more the mixture will rise.

* The oven must be piping hot.

* Do not open oven door at all while cooking.

* Fat must be smoking before the batter is added.

* Best served straight from the oven.

 

 

 

 

Kit’s Crit: The Daylight Gate (Jeanette Winterson)

Winterson

Starting from the assumption that Jacobean Lancashire was a rebel Catholic stronghold in a Protestant country, Jeanette Winterson’s version of the most famous English witch trials is quite unlike any other.  The Daylight Gate is a novella – not the hefty Victorian saga first told by Harrison Ainsworth – and it often strays away from the recorded historical facts.  Indeed, this book examines witchcraft and Catholicism as “matters treasonable and diabolical” in an impressionistic, modernist manner, which culminates in a broody tale where events appear blurred by the mists of time.

 Winterson takes a lot of poetic license with the facts as they are recorded in the trial documents, inventing new players, and placing famous people of that era in implausible situations.  Her Alice Nutter – the central character she admits is not true to the actual historical figure – is lured into witchcraft, knows William Shakespeare and the magician John Dee, appears younger than the matron who was actually executed, and is bisexual. Yet at the same time Justice Roger Nowell, who led the puritanical crusade against the local cunning folk, gets painted in an unexpectedly sympathetic light.

However, Winterson’s rough characters and brutal situations are credible for that time, area, and circumstance.  And she deftly strips away the romanticism found in some of the earlier novels based on these same events.  I particularly admire her intelligent justification for the motives and causes behind the three remaining puzzles: Why was a gentlewoman of Mistress Nutter’s rank convicted alongside the common poor?  Why did nine-year-old Jennet Device betray her entire family?  And why did some of the accused willingly confess to diabolical crimes?  Winterson has obviously considered these questions and reached her own conclusions about the excitement, hysteria, and sexual opportunities that open up during a witch hunt.  And while she does not dwell on the misogynist drive that fuelled men like Nowell, she does address the other power imbalances associated with gender, wealth, and rank.

I appreciate Winterson’s sparse, poetic technique that functions like a series of flashbacks to a dangerous, incomprehensible era that was ripe with suspicion and superstition – a place where poor women did what was necessary to survive.  Because they had no control over the real world they “must get what power they can in theirs,” though this is not a feel-good fairy tale where everyone lives happily ever after.

If you like intensity, and are open to magical realism, The Daylight Gate is an interesting introduction to the Pendle Witches.  But it is ultimately more of a literary horror story than a traditional historical fiction.

Elementary Magic

elements Shutterstock

The four elements are the basic substances that make up life on this planet. They were classified by the Ancient Greeks as Fire, Air, Earth and Water.  This categorization influenced European thought well into the Renaissance period, and still remains important in modern magic and astrology.  For example, the twelve horoscopes are divided into Fire Signs (Aires, Leo, Sagittarius); Earth Signs (Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn); Air Signs (Gemini, Libra, Aquarius); and Water Signs (Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces).

FIRE (Ignis) is plasma matter that can manifest as both hot and dry.  Galen associated it with yellow bile and the choleric body.  It is a positive power – or a destructive influence – depending on how it is used.  Fire is also a transformer that can turn into heat, light, smoke, and ash, and is the energy that brings about change.  Magicians use fire spells to inspire drive and motivation, particularly in the pursuit of passion or ambition.

AIR (Aer) – a gaseous matter – contains both wet and hot properties.  Galen believed it was related to the blood and created the sanguine body.  Air is a detaching element associated with the mind.  For this reason it is used in magic to enhance human intellectual powers and inspire creativity.

EARTH (Terra) is dry and cold, a feminine solid matter.  In Galen’s philosophy it partnered black bile and the melancholic humor.  But Earth is also a binding element, and while it can freeze, liquefy, or dry into other states, it always retains the ability to return to its natural form.  Because it represents the grounded soul, earth spells are used for guilt-free material gain, and personal happiness.

WATER (Aqua) is the cold, wet element that manifests as a liquid matter.  Galen connected water with a phlegmatic  imbalance of the humors.  This substance not only nurtures and sustains all life on the planet but it also contains magnetic properties.  It is a mystical element used by practitioners for communing with divine spirits.

 Aristotle studied the heavens and decided to add a fifth element he named Aether.  His concept of ETHER sounds like stardust – the substance beyond the material world that is heavenly and unchangeable.  Some modern magicians believe this is the stuff from which all magic is made – that spells function by directing the energy in our own bodies to manipulate the flow of Ether as it swirls about the universe.

Perhaps Joni Mitchell’s Woodstock song is right in claiming:

“We are stardust

Billion year old carbon” . . . 

Sources:

Rees, Matthew. “A Metaphysical Theory of Magic” at http://www.sabledrake.com/2000a/metaphysical_magic.htm

“Fire, Water, Air, Earth” at http://www.spiritualknowledge.net

Wikipedia: “Classical Elements” and various Wiccan, Pagan, and Magic websites.

Photo: Shutterstock

Olde English Sherry Trifle

Trifle

This traditional Sherry Trifle is intended for adults.  For a non-alcoholic version omit the sherry.  Another adaptation can be made by leaving out the jelly / Jello layer.  They all taste fabulous!

Ingredients

1 family-size raspberry jam Swiss-roll cake

1 sherry glass of sweet sherry

1 pint of raspberry jelly / Jello (made from blocks or powder)

1/2 Ib (one small punnet or tub) fresh raspberries

1 pint of homemade vanilla custard (or Bird’s instant custard powder mix)

1 pint heavy or whipping cream

Chopped nuts, candied fruit slices, chocolate flakes, or ice-cream sprinkles for decoration

Method

1. Mix up the jelly / Jello and leave to cool in a jug.

2. Make the custard and  cool in a pan away from the stove.

3. Line a large glass bowl with the halved slices of the Swiss-roll cake.

4. Pour the sherry evenly over the sponge.

5. Wash the fresh raspberries and add on the top of the cake.

6. Pour the cooled jelly /Jello over the fruit and sponge.  Place in the refrigerator to set.

7.  When the custard is cold carefully remove the skin from the top and discard.  Spoon the custard onto the chilled jelly mix and spread evenly over the top.  Chill in the refrigerator for about one hour.

8. Whip the cream into peaks.  Spoon onto the  cold custard layer.  Using a fork, spread the topping evenly in a pleasing design.

9. Decorate with the nuts, fruit slices, chocolate flakes, or ice-cream sprinkles.

10. Keep the in the refrigerator until ready to serve.